Humanoid Standup#
This environment is part of the Mujoco environments which contains general information about the environment.
Action Space 

Observation Space 

import 

Description#
This environment is based on the environment introduced by Tassa, Erez and Todorov in “Synthesis and stabilization of complex behaviors through online trajectory optimization”. The 3D bipedal robot is designed to simulate a human. It has a torso (abdomen) with a pair of legs and arms. The legs each consist of two links, and so the arms (representing the knees and elbows respectively). The environment starts with the humanoid laying on the ground, and then the goal of the environment is to make the humanoid standup and then keep it standing by applying torques on the various hinges.
Action Space#
The agent take a 17element vector for actions.
The action space is a continuous (action, ...)
all in [1, 1]
, where action
represents the numerical torques applied at the hinge joints.
Num 
Action 
Control Min 
Control Max 
Name (in corresponding XML file) 
Joint 
Unit 

0 
Torque applied on the hinge in the ycoordinate of the abdomen 
0.4 
0.4 
abdomen_y 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
1 
Torque applied on the hinge in the zcoordinate of the abdomen 
0.4 
0.4 
abdomen_z 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
2 
Torque applied on the hinge in the xcoordinate of the abdomen 
0.4 
0.4 
abdomen_x 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
3 
Torque applied on the rotor between torso/abdomen and the right hip (xcoordinate) 
0.4 
0.4 
right_hip_x (right_thigh) 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
4 
Torque applied on the rotor between torso/abdomen and the right hip (zcoordinate) 
0.4 
0.4 
right_hip_z (right_thigh) 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
5 
Torque applied on the rotor between torso/abdomen and the right hip (ycoordinate) 
0.4 
0.4 
right_hip_y (right_thigh) 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
6 
Torque applied on the rotor between the right hip/thigh and the right shin 
0.4 
0.4 
right_knee 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
7 
Torque applied on the rotor between torso/abdomen and the left hip (xcoordinate) 
0.4 
0.4 
left_hip_x (left_thigh) 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
8 
Torque applied on the rotor between torso/abdomen and the left hip (zcoordinate) 
0.4 
0.4 
left_hip_z (left_thigh) 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
9 
Torque applied on the rotor between torso/abdomen and the left hip (ycoordinate) 
0.4 
0.4 
left_hip_y (left_thigh) 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
10 
Torque applied on the rotor between the left hip/thigh and the left shin 
0.4 
0.4 
left_knee 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
11 
Torque applied on the rotor between the torso and right upper arm (coordinate 1) 
0.4 
0.4 
right_shoulder1 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
12 
Torque applied on the rotor between the torso and right upper arm (coordinate 2) 
0.4 
0.4 
right_shoulder2 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
13 
Torque applied on the rotor between the right upper arm and right lower arm 
0.4 
0.4 
right_elbow 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
14 
Torque applied on the rotor between the torso and left upper arm (coordinate 1) 
0.4 
0.4 
left_shoulder1 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
15 
Torque applied on the rotor between the torso and left upper arm (coordinate 2) 
0.4 
0.4 
left_shoulder2 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
16 
Torque applied on the rotor between the left upper arm and left lower arm 
0.4 
0.4 
left_elbow 
hinge 
torque (N m) 
Observation Space#
Observations consist of positional values of different body parts of the Humanoid, followed by the velocities of those individual parts (their derivatives) with all the positions ordered before all the velocities.
By default, observations do not include the x and ycoordinates of the torso. These may
be included by passing exclude_current_positions_from_observation=False
during construction.
In that case, the observation space will be a Box(Inf, Inf, (378,), float64)
where the first two observations
represent the x and ycoordinates of the torso.
Regardless of whether exclude_current_positions_from_observation
was set to true or false, the x and ycoordinates
will be returned in info
with keys "x_position"
and "y_position"
, respectively.
However, by default, the observation is a Box(Inf, Inf, (376,), float64)
. The elements correspond to the following:
Num 
Observation 
Min 
Max 
Name (in corresponding XML file) 
Joint 
Unit 

0 
zcoordinate of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
position (m) 
1 
xorientation of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
angle (rad) 
2 
yorientation of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
angle (rad) 
3 
zorientation of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
angle (rad) 
4 
worientation of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
angle (rad) 
5 
zangle of the abdomen (in lower_waist) 
Inf 
Inf 
abdomen_z 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
6 
yangle of the abdomen (in lower_waist) 
Inf 
Inf 
abdomen_y 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
7 
xangle of the abdomen (in pelvis) 
Inf 
Inf 
abdomen_x 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
8 
xcoordinate of angle between pelvis and right hip (in right_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_hip_x 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
9 
zcoordinate of angle between pelvis and right hip (in right_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_hip_z 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
10 
ycoordinate of angle between pelvis and right hip (in right_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_hip_y 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
11 
angle between right hip and the right shin (in right_knee) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_knee 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
12 
xcoordinate of angle between pelvis and left hip (in left_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_hip_x 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
13 
zcoordinate of angle between pelvis and left hip (in left_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_hip_z 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
14 
ycoordinate of angle between pelvis and left hip (in left_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_hip_y 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
15 
angle between left hip and the left shin (in left_knee) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_knee 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
16 
coordinate1 (multiaxis) angle between torso and right arm (in right_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_shoulder1 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
17 
coordinate2 (multiaxis) angle between torso and right arm (in right_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_shoulder2 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
18 
angle between right upper arm and right_lower_arm 
Inf 
Inf 
right_elbow 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
19 
coordinate1 (multiaxis) angle between torso and left arm (in left_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_shoulder1 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
20 
coordinate2 (multiaxis) angle between torso and left arm (in left_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_shoulder2 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
21 
angle between left upper arm and left_lower_arm 
Inf 
Inf 
left_elbow 
hinge 
angle (rad) 
22 
xcoordinate velocity of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
velocity (m/s) 
23 
ycoordinate velocity of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
velocity (m/s) 
24 
zcoordinate velocity of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
velocity (m/s) 
25 
xcoordinate angular velocity of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
26 
ycoordinate angular velocity of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
27 
zcoordinate angular velocity of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
28 
zcoordinate of angular velocity of the abdomen (in lower_waist) 
Inf 
Inf 
abdomen_z 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
29 
ycoordinate of angular velocity of the abdomen (in lower_waist) 
Inf 
Inf 
abdomen_y 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
30 
xcoordinate of angular velocity of the abdomen (in pelvis) 
Inf 
Inf 
abdomen_x 
hinge 
aanglular velocity (rad/s) 
31 
xcoordinate of the angular velocity of the angle between pelvis and right hip (in right_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_hip_x 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
32 
zcoordinate of the angular velocity of the angle between pelvis and right hip (in right_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_hip_z 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
33 
ycoordinate of the angular velocity of the angle between pelvis and right hip (in right_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_hip_y 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
34 
angular velocity of the angle between right hip and the right shin (in right_knee) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_knee 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
35 
xcoordinate of the angular velocity of the angle between pelvis and left hip (in left_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_hip_x 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
36 
zcoordinate of the angular velocity of the angle between pelvis and left hip (in left_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_hip_z 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
37 
ycoordinate of the angular velocity of the angle between pelvis and left hip (in left_thigh) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_hip_y 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
38 
angular velocity of the angle between left hip and the left shin (in left_knee) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_knee 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
39 
coordinate1 (multiaxis) of the angular velocity of the angle between torso and right arm (in right_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_shoulder1 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
40 
coordinate2 (multiaxis) of the angular velocity of the angle between torso and right arm (in right_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
right_shoulder2 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
41 
angular velocity of the angle between right upper arm and right_lower_arm 
Inf 
Inf 
right_elbow 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
42 
coordinate1 (multiaxis) of the angular velocity of the angle between torso and left arm (in left_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_shoulder1 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
43 
coordinate2 (multiaxis) of the angular velocity of the angle between torso and left arm (in left_upper_arm) 
Inf 
Inf 
left_shoulder2 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
44 
angular velocity of the angle between left upper arm and left_lower_arm 
Inf 
Inf 
left_elbow 
hinge 
anglular velocity (rad/s) 
excluded 
xcoordinate of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
position (m) 
excluded 
ycoordinate of the torso (centre) 
Inf 
Inf 
root 
free 
position (m) 
Additionally, after all the positional and velocity based values in the table, the observation contains (in order):
cinert: Mass and inertia of a single rigid body relative to the center of mass (this is an intermediate result of transition). It has shape 14*10 (nbody * 10) and hence adds to another 140 elements in the state space.
cvel: Center of mass based velocity. It has shape 14 * 6 (nbody * 6) and hence adds another 84 elements in the state space
qfrc_actuator: Constraint force generated as the actuator force. This has shape
(23,)
(nv * 1) and hence adds another 23 elements to the state space.cfrc_ext: This is the center of mass based external force on the body. It has shape 14 * 6 (nbody * 6) and hence adds to another 84 elements in the state space. where nbody stands for the number of bodies in the robot and nv stands for the number of degrees of freedom (= dim(qvel))
The body parts are:
id (for 
body part 

0 
worldBody (note: all values are constant 0) 
1 
torso 
2 
lwaist 
3 
pelvis 
4 
right_thigh 
5 
right_sin 
6 
right_foot 
7 
left_thigh 
8 
left_sin 
9 
left_foot 
10 
right_upper_arm 
11 
right_lower_arm 
12 
left_upper_arm 
13 
left_lower_arm 
The joints are:
id (for 
joint 

0 
root 
1 
root 
2 
root 
3 
root 
4 
root 
5 
root 
6 
abdomen_z 
7 
abdomen_y 
8 
abdomen_x 
9 
right_hip_x 
10 
right_hip_z 
11 
right_hip_y 
12 
right_knee 
13 
left_hip_x 
14 
left_hiz_z 
15 
left_hip_y 
16 
left_knee 
17 
right_shoulder1 
18 
right_shoulder2 
19 
right_elbow 
20 
left_shoulder1 
21 
left_shoulder2 
22 
left_elfbow 
The (x,y,z) coordinates are translational DOFs while the orientations are rotational DOFs expressed as quaternions. One can read more about free joints on the Mujoco Documentation.
Note: HumanoidStandupv4 environment no longer has the following contact forces issue. If using previous HumanoidStandup versions from v4, there have been reported issues that using a MujocoPy version > 2.0 results in the contact forces always being 0. As such we recommend to use a MujocoPy version < 2.0 when using the Humanoid environment if you would like to report results with contact forces (if contact forces are not used in your experiments, you can use version > 2.0).
Rewards#
The reward consists of three parts:
uph_cost: A reward for moving upward (in an attempt to stand up). This is not a relative reward which measures how much upward it has moved from the last timestep, but it is an absolute reward which measures how much upward the Humanoid has moved overall. It is measured as (z coordinate after action  0)/(atomic timestep), where z coordinate after action is index 0 in the state/index 2 in the table, and atomic timestep is the time for one frame of movement even though the simulation has a framerate of 5 (done in order to inflate rewards a little for faster learning).
quad_ctrl_cost: A negative reward for penalising the humanoid if it has too large of a control force. If there are nu actuators/controls, then the control has shape
nu x 1
. It is measured as 0.1 x sum(control^{2}).quad_impact_cost: A negative reward for penalising the humanoid if the external contact force is too large. It is calculated as min(0.5 * 0.000001 * sum(external contact force^{2}), 10).
The total reward returned is reward = uph_cost + 1  quad_ctrl_cost  quad_impact_cost
Starting State#
All observations start in state (0.0, 0.0, 0.105, 1.0, 0.0 … 0.0) with a uniform noise in the range of [0.01, 0.01] added to the positional and velocity values (values in the table) for stochasticity. Note that the initial z coordinate is intentionally selected to be low, thereby indicating a laying down humanoid. The initial orientation is designed to make it face forward as well.
Episode End#
The episode ends when any of the following happens:
Truncation: The episode duration reaches a 1000 timesteps
Termination: Any of the state space values is no longer finite
Arguments#
No additional arguments are currently supported.
import gymnasium as gym
env = gym.make('HumanoidStandupv4')
There is no v3 for HumanoidStandup, unlike the robot environments where a v3 and beyond take gymnasium.make kwargs such as xml_file, ctrl_cost_weight, reset_noise_scale etc.
import gymnasium as gym
env = gym.make('HumanoidStandupv2')
Version History#
v4: All MuJoCo environments now use the MuJoCo bindings in mujoco >= 2.1.3
v3: Support for
gymnasium.make
kwargs such asxml_file
,ctrl_cost_weight
,reset_noise_scale
, etc. rgb rendering comes from tracking camera (so agent does not run away from screen)v2: All continuous control environments now use mujocopy >= 1.50
v1: max_time_steps raised to 1000 for robot based tasks. Added reward_threshold to environments.
v0: Initial versions release (1.0.0)