Source code for gymnasium.core

"""Core API for Environment, Wrapper, ActionWrapper, RewardWrapper and ObservationWrapper."""

from __future__ import annotations

from copy import deepcopy
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING, Any, Generic, SupportsFloat, TypeVar

import numpy as np

import gymnasium
from gymnasium import spaces
from gymnasium.utils import RecordConstructorArgs, seeding


if TYPE_CHECKING:
    from gymnasium.envs.registration import EnvSpec, WrapperSpec

ObsType = TypeVar("ObsType")
ActType = TypeVar("ActType")
RenderFrame = TypeVar("RenderFrame")


[docs] class Env(Generic[ObsType, ActType]): r"""The main Gymnasium class for implementing Reinforcement Learning Agents environments. The class encapsulates an environment with arbitrary behind-the-scenes dynamics through the :meth:`step` and :meth:`reset` functions. An environment can be partially or fully observed by single agents. For multi-agent environments, see PettingZoo. The main API methods that users of this class need to know are: - :meth:`step` - Updates an environment with actions returning the next agent observation, the reward for taking that actions, if the environment has terminated or truncated due to the latest action and information from the environment about the step, i.e. metrics, debug info. - :meth:`reset` - Resets the environment to an initial state, required before calling step. Returns the first agent observation for an episode and information, i.e. metrics, debug info. - :meth:`render` - Renders the environments to help visualise what the agent see, examples modes are "human", "rgb_array", "ansi" for text. - :meth:`close` - Closes the environment, important when external software is used, i.e. pygame for rendering, databases Environments have additional attributes for users to understand the implementation - :attr:`action_space` - The Space object corresponding to valid actions, all valid actions should be contained within the space. - :attr:`observation_space` - The Space object corresponding to valid observations, all valid observations should be contained within the space. - :attr:`spec` - An environment spec that contains the information used to initialize the environment from :meth:`gymnasium.make` - :attr:`metadata` - The metadata of the environment, e.g., `{"render_modes": ["rgb_array", "human"], "render_fps": 30}`. For Jax or Torch, this can be indicated to users with `"jax"=True` or `"torch"=True`. - :attr:`np_random` - The random number generator for the environment. This is automatically assigned during ``super().reset(seed=seed)`` and when assessing :attr:`np_random`. .. seealso:: For modifying or extending environments use the :class:`gymnasium.Wrapper` class Note: To get reproducible sampling of actions, a seed can be set with ``env.action_space.seed(123)``. Note: For strict type checking (e.g., mypy or pyright), :class:`Env` is a generic class with two parameterized types: ``ObsType`` and ``ActType``. The ``ObsType`` and ``ActType`` are the expected types of the observations and actions used in :meth:`reset` and :meth:`step`. The environment's :attr:`observation_space` and :attr:`action_space` should have type ``Space[ObsType]`` and ``Space[ActType]``, see a space's implementation to find its parameterized type. """ # Set this in SOME subclasses metadata: dict[str, Any] = {"render_modes": []} # define render_mode if your environment supports rendering render_mode: str | None = None spec: EnvSpec | None = None # Set these in ALL subclasses action_space: spaces.Space[ActType] observation_space: spaces.Space[ObsType] # Created _np_random: np.random.Generator | None = None # will be set to the "invalid" value -1 if the seed of the currently set rng is unknown _np_random_seed: int | None = None
[docs] def step( self, action: ActType ) -> tuple[ObsType, SupportsFloat, bool, bool, dict[str, Any]]: """Run one timestep of the environment's dynamics using the agent actions. When the end of an episode is reached (``terminated or truncated``), it is necessary to call :meth:`reset` to reset this environment's state for the next episode. .. versionchanged:: 0.26 The Step API was changed removing ``done`` in favor of ``terminated`` and ``truncated`` to make it clearer to users when the environment had terminated or truncated which is critical for reinforcement learning bootstrapping algorithms. Args: action (ActType): an action provided by the agent to update the environment state. Returns: observation (ObsType): An element of the environment's :attr:`observation_space` as the next observation due to the agent actions. An example is a numpy array containing the positions and velocities of the pole in CartPole. reward (SupportsFloat): The reward as a result of taking the action. terminated (bool): Whether the agent reaches the terminal state (as defined under the MDP of the task) which can be positive or negative. An example is reaching the goal state or moving into the lava from the Sutton and Barto Gridworld. If true, the user needs to call :meth:`reset`. truncated (bool): Whether the truncation condition outside the scope of the MDP is satisfied. Typically, this is a timelimit, but could also be used to indicate an agent physically going out of bounds. Can be used to end the episode prematurely before a terminal state is reached. If true, the user needs to call :meth:`reset`. info (dict): Contains auxiliary diagnostic information (helpful for debugging, learning, and logging). This might, for instance, contain: metrics that describe the agent's performance state, variables that are hidden from observations, or individual reward terms that are combined to produce the total reward. In OpenAI Gym <v26, it contains "TimeLimit.truncated" to distinguish truncation and termination, however this is deprecated in favour of returning terminated and truncated variables. done (bool): (Deprecated) A boolean value for if the episode has ended, in which case further :meth:`step` calls will return undefined results. This was removed in OpenAI Gym v26 in favor of terminated and truncated attributes. A done signal may be emitted for different reasons: Maybe the task underlying the environment was solved successfully, a certain timelimit was exceeded, or the physics simulation has entered an invalid state. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def reset( self, *, seed: int | None = None, options: dict[str, Any] | None = None, ) -> tuple[ObsType, dict[str, Any]]: # type: ignore """Resets the environment to an initial internal state, returning an initial observation and info. This method generates a new starting state often with some randomness to ensure that the agent explores the state space and learns a generalised policy about the environment. This randomness can be controlled with the ``seed`` parameter otherwise if the environment already has a random number generator and :meth:`reset` is called with ``seed=None``, the RNG is not reset. Therefore, :meth:`reset` should (in the typical use case) be called with a seed right after initialization and then never again. For Custom environments, the first line of :meth:`reset` should be ``super().reset(seed=seed)`` which implements the seeding correctly. .. versionchanged:: v0.25 The ``return_info`` parameter was removed and now info is expected to be returned. Args: seed (optional int): The seed that is used to initialize the environment's PRNG (`np_random`) and the read-only attribute `np_random_seed`. If the environment does not already have a PRNG and ``seed=None`` (the default option) is passed, a seed will be chosen from some source of entropy (e.g. timestamp or /dev/urandom). However, if the environment already has a PRNG and ``seed=None`` is passed, the PRNG will *not* be reset and the env's :attr:`np_random_seed` will *not* be altered. If you pass an integer, the PRNG will be reset even if it already exists. Usually, you want to pass an integer *right after the environment has been initialized and then never again*. Please refer to the minimal example above to see this paradigm in action. options (optional dict): Additional information to specify how the environment is reset (optional, depending on the specific environment) Returns: observation (ObsType): Observation of the initial state. This will be an element of :attr:`observation_space` (typically a numpy array) and is analogous to the observation returned by :meth:`step`. info (dictionary): This dictionary contains auxiliary information complementing ``observation``. It should be analogous to the ``info`` returned by :meth:`step`. """ # Initialize the RNG if the seed is manually passed if seed is not None: self._np_random, self._np_random_seed = seeding.np_random(seed)
[docs] def render(self) -> RenderFrame | list[RenderFrame] | None: """Compute the render frames as specified by :attr:`render_mode` during the initialization of the environment. The environment's :attr:`metadata` render modes (`env.metadata["render_modes"]`) should contain the possible ways to implement the render modes. In addition, list versions for most render modes is achieved through `gymnasium.make` which automatically applies a wrapper to collect rendered frames. Note: As the :attr:`render_mode` is known during ``__init__``, the objects used to render the environment state should be initialised in ``__init__``. By convention, if the :attr:`render_mode` is: - None (default): no render is computed. - "human": The environment is continuously rendered in the current display or terminal, usually for human consumption. This rendering should occur during :meth:`step` and :meth:`render` doesn't need to be called. Returns ``None``. - "rgb_array": Return a single frame representing the current state of the environment. A frame is a ``np.ndarray`` with shape ``(x, y, 3)`` representing RGB values for an x-by-y pixel image. - "ansi": Return a strings (``str``) or ``StringIO.StringIO`` containing a terminal-style text representation for each time step. The text can include newlines and ANSI escape sequences (e.g. for colors). - "rgb_array_list" and "ansi_list": List based version of render modes are possible (except Human) through the wrapper, :py:class:`gymnasium.wrappers.RenderCollection` that is automatically applied during ``gymnasium.make(..., render_mode="rgb_array_list")``. The frames collected are popped after :meth:`render` is called or :meth:`reset`. Note: Make sure that your class's :attr:`metadata` ``"render_modes"`` key includes the list of supported modes. .. versionchanged:: 0.25.0 The render function was changed to no longer accept parameters, rather these parameters should be specified in the environment initialised, i.e., ``gymnasium.make("CartPole-v1", render_mode="human")`` """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def close(self): """After the user has finished using the environment, close contains the code necessary to "clean up" the environment. This is critical for closing rendering windows, database or HTTP connections. Calling ``close`` on an already closed environment has no effect and won't raise an error. """ pass
@property def unwrapped(self) -> Env[ObsType, ActType]: """Returns the base non-wrapped environment. Returns: Env: The base non-wrapped :class:`gymnasium.Env` instance """ return self @property def np_random_seed(self) -> int: """Returns the environment's internal :attr:`_np_random_seed` that if not set will first initialise with a random int as seed. If :attr:`np_random_seed` was set directly instead of through :meth:`reset` or :meth:`set_np_random_through_seed`, the seed will take the value -1. Returns: int: the seed of the current `np_random` or -1, if the seed of the rng is unknown """ if self._np_random_seed is None: self._np_random, self._np_random_seed = seeding.np_random() return self._np_random_seed @property def np_random(self) -> np.random.Generator: """Returns the environment's internal :attr:`_np_random` that if not set will initialise with a random seed. Returns: Instances of `np.random.Generator` """ if self._np_random is None: self._np_random, self._np_random_seed = seeding.np_random() return self._np_random @np_random.setter def np_random(self, value: np.random.Generator): """Sets the environment's internal :attr:`_np_random` with the user-provided Generator. Since it is generally not possible to extract a seed from an instance of a random number generator, this will also set the :attr:`_np_random_seed` to `-1`, which is not valid as input for the creation of a numpy rng. """ self._np_random = value # Setting a numpy rng with -1 will cause a ValueError self._np_random_seed = -1 def __str__(self): """Returns a string of the environment with :attr:`spec` id's if :attr:`spec. Returns: A string identifying the environment """ if self.spec is None: return f"<{type(self).__name__} instance>" else: return f"<{type(self).__name__}<{self.spec.id}>>" def __enter__(self): """Support with-statement for the environment.""" return self def __exit__(self, *args: Any): """Support with-statement for the environment and closes the environment.""" self.close() # propagate exception return False def has_wrapper_attr(self, name: str) -> bool: """Checks if the attribute `name` exists in the environment.""" return hasattr(self, name) def get_wrapper_attr(self, name: str) -> Any: """Gets the attribute `name` from the environment.""" return getattr(self, name) def set_wrapper_attr(self, name: str, value: Any): """Sets the attribute `name` on the environment with `value`.""" setattr(self, name, value)
WrapperObsType = TypeVar("WrapperObsType") WrapperActType = TypeVar("WrapperActType")
[docs] class Wrapper( Env[WrapperObsType, WrapperActType], Generic[WrapperObsType, WrapperActType, ObsType, ActType], ): """Wraps a :class:`gymnasium.Env` to allow a modular transformation of the :meth:`step` and :meth:`reset` methods. This class is the base class of all wrappers to change the behavior of the underlying environment. Wrappers that inherit from this class can modify the :attr:`action_space`, :attr:`observation_space`, :attr:`reward_range` and :attr:`metadata` attributes, without changing the underlying environment's attributes. Moreover, the behavior of the :meth:`step` and :meth:`reset` methods can be changed by these wrappers. Some attributes (:attr:`spec`, :attr:`render_mode`, :attr:`np_random`) will point back to the wrapper's environment (i.e. to the corresponding attributes of :attr:`env`). Note: If you inherit from :class:`Wrapper`, don't forget to call ``super().__init__(env)`` """ def __init__(self, env: Env[ObsType, ActType]): """Wraps an environment to allow a modular transformation of the :meth:`step` and :meth:`reset` methods. Args: env: The environment to wrap """ self.env = env assert isinstance(env, Env) self._action_space: spaces.Space[WrapperActType] | None = None self._observation_space: spaces.Space[WrapperObsType] | None = None self._metadata: dict[str, Any] | None = None self._cached_spec: EnvSpec | None = None
[docs] def step( self, action: WrapperActType ) -> tuple[WrapperObsType, SupportsFloat, bool, bool, dict[str, Any]]: """Uses the :meth:`step` of the :attr:`env` that can be overwritten to change the returned data.""" return self.env.step(action)
[docs] def reset( self, *, seed: int | None = None, options: dict[str, Any] | None = None ) -> tuple[WrapperObsType, dict[str, Any]]: """Uses the :meth:`reset` of the :attr:`env` that can be overwritten to change the returned data.""" return self.env.reset(seed=seed, options=options)
[docs] def render(self) -> RenderFrame | list[RenderFrame] | None: """Uses the :meth:`render` of the :attr:`env` that can be overwritten to change the returned data.""" return self.env.render()
[docs] def close(self): """Closes the wrapper and :attr:`env`.""" return self.env.close()
@property def np_random_seed(self) -> int | None: """Returns the base environment's :attr:`np_random_seed`.""" return self.env.np_random_seed @property def unwrapped(self) -> Env[ObsType, ActType]: """Returns the base environment of the wrapper. This will be the bare :class:`gymnasium.Env` environment, underneath all layers of wrappers. """ return self.env.unwrapped @property def spec(self) -> EnvSpec | None: """Returns the :attr:`Env` :attr:`spec` attribute with the `WrapperSpec` if the wrapper inherits from `EzPickle`.""" if self._cached_spec is not None: return self._cached_spec env_spec = self.env.spec if env_spec is not None: # See if the wrapper inherits from `RecordConstructorArgs` then add the kwargs otherwise use `None` for the wrapper kwargs. This will raise an error in `make` if isinstance(self, RecordConstructorArgs): kwargs = getattr(self, "_saved_kwargs") if "env" in kwargs: kwargs = deepcopy(kwargs) kwargs.pop("env") else: kwargs = None from gymnasium.envs.registration import WrapperSpec wrapper_spec = WrapperSpec( name=self.class_name(), entry_point=f"{self.__module__}:{type(self).__name__}", kwargs=kwargs, ) # to avoid reference issues we deepcopy the prior environments spec and add the new information try: env_spec = deepcopy(env_spec) env_spec.additional_wrappers += (wrapper_spec,) except Exception as e: gymnasium.logger.warn( f"An exception occurred ({e}) while copying the environment spec={env_spec}" ) return None self._cached_spec = env_spec return env_spec
[docs] @classmethod def wrapper_spec(cls, **kwargs: Any) -> WrapperSpec: """Generates a `WrapperSpec` for the wrappers.""" from gymnasium.envs.registration import WrapperSpec return WrapperSpec( name=cls.class_name(), entry_point=f"{cls.__module__}:{cls.__name__}", kwargs=kwargs, )
def has_wrapper_attr(self, name: str) -> bool: """Checks if the given attribute is within the wrapper or its environment.""" if hasattr(self, name): return True else: return self.env.has_wrapper_attr(name)
[docs] def get_wrapper_attr(self, name: str) -> Any: """Gets an attribute from the wrapper and lower environments if `name` doesn't exist in this object. Args: name: The variable name to get Returns: The variable with name in wrapper or lower environments """ if hasattr(self, name): return getattr(self, name) else: try: return self.env.get_wrapper_attr(name) except AttributeError as e: raise AttributeError( f"wrapper {self.class_name()} has no attribute {name!r}" ) from e
[docs] def set_wrapper_attr(self, name: str, value: Any): """Sets an attribute on this wrapper or lower environment if `name` is already defined. Args: name: The variable name value: The new variable value """ sub_env = self.env attr_set = False while attr_set is False and isinstance(sub_env, Wrapper): if hasattr(sub_env, name): setattr(sub_env, name, value) attr_set = True else: sub_env = sub_env.env if attr_set is False: setattr(sub_env, name, value)
def __str__(self): """Returns the wrapper name and the :attr:`env` representation string.""" return f"<{type(self).__name__}{self.env}>" def __repr__(self): """Returns the string representation of the wrapper.""" return str(self) @classmethod def class_name(cls) -> str: """Returns the class name of the wrapper.""" return cls.__name__ @property def action_space( self, ) -> spaces.Space[ActType] | spaces.Space[WrapperActType]: """Return the :attr:`Env` :attr:`action_space` unless overwritten then the wrapper :attr:`action_space` is used.""" if self._action_space is None: return self.env.action_space return self._action_space @action_space.setter def action_space(self, space: spaces.Space[WrapperActType]): self._action_space = space @property def observation_space( self, ) -> spaces.Space[ObsType] | spaces.Space[WrapperObsType]: """Return the :attr:`Env` :attr:`observation_space` unless overwritten then the wrapper :attr:`observation_space` is used.""" if self._observation_space is None: return self.env.observation_space return self._observation_space @observation_space.setter def observation_space(self, space: spaces.Space[WrapperObsType]): self._observation_space = space @property def metadata(self) -> dict[str, Any]: """Returns the :attr:`Env` :attr:`metadata`.""" if self._metadata is None: return self.env.metadata return self._metadata @metadata.setter def metadata(self, value: dict[str, Any]): self._metadata = value @property def render_mode(self) -> str | None: """Returns the :attr:`Env` :attr:`render_mode`.""" return self.env.render_mode @property def np_random(self) -> np.random.Generator: """Returns the :attr:`Env` :attr:`np_random` attribute.""" return self.env.np_random @np_random.setter def np_random(self, value: np.random.Generator): self.env.np_random = value @property def _np_random(self): """This code will never be run due to __getattr__ being called prior this. It seems that @property overwrites the variable (`_np_random`) meaning that __getattr__ gets called with the missing variable. """ raise AttributeError( "Can't access `_np_random` of a wrapper, use `.unwrapped._np_random` or `.np_random`." )
[docs] class ObservationWrapper(Wrapper[WrapperObsType, ActType, ObsType, ActType]): """Modify observations from :meth:`Env.reset` and :meth:`Env.step` using :meth:`observation` function. If you would like to apply a function to only the observation before passing it to the learning code, you can simply inherit from :class:`ObservationWrapper` and overwrite the method :meth:`observation` to implement that transformation. The transformation defined in that method must be reflected by the :attr:`env` observation space. Otherwise, you need to specify the new observation space of the wrapper by setting :attr:`self.observation_space` in the :meth:`__init__` method of your wrapper. """ def __init__(self, env: Env[ObsType, ActType]): """Constructor for the observation wrapper. Args: env: Environment to be wrapped. """ Wrapper.__init__(self, env) def reset( self, *, seed: int | None = None, options: dict[str, Any] | None = None ) -> tuple[WrapperObsType, dict[str, Any]]: """Modifies the :attr:`env` after calling :meth:`reset`, returning a modified observation using :meth:`self.observation`.""" obs, info = self.env.reset(seed=seed, options=options) return self.observation(obs), info def step( self, action: ActType ) -> tuple[WrapperObsType, SupportsFloat, bool, bool, dict[str, Any]]: """Modifies the :attr:`env` after calling :meth:`step` using :meth:`self.observation` on the returned observations.""" observation, reward, terminated, truncated, info = self.env.step(action) return self.observation(observation), reward, terminated, truncated, info
[docs] def observation(self, observation: ObsType) -> WrapperObsType: """Returns a modified observation. Args: observation: The :attr:`env` observation Returns: The modified observation """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] class RewardWrapper(Wrapper[ObsType, ActType, ObsType, ActType]): """Superclass of wrappers that can modify the returning reward from a step. If you would like to apply a function to the reward that is returned by the base environment before passing it to learning code, you can simply inherit from :class:`RewardWrapper` and overwrite the method :meth:`reward` to implement that transformation. This transformation might change the :attr:`reward_range`; to specify the :attr:`reward_range` of your wrapper, you can simply define :attr:`self.reward_range` in :meth:`__init__`. """ def __init__(self, env: Env[ObsType, ActType]): """Constructor for the Reward wrapper. Args: env: Environment to be wrapped. """ Wrapper.__init__(self, env) def step( self, action: ActType ) -> tuple[ObsType, SupportsFloat, bool, bool, dict[str, Any]]: """Modifies the :attr:`env` :meth:`step` reward using :meth:`self.reward`.""" observation, reward, terminated, truncated, info = self.env.step(action) return observation, self.reward(reward), terminated, truncated, info
[docs] def reward(self, reward: SupportsFloat) -> SupportsFloat: """Returns a modified environment ``reward``. Args: reward: The :attr:`env` :meth:`step` reward Returns: The modified `reward` """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] class ActionWrapper(Wrapper[ObsType, WrapperActType, ObsType, ActType]): """Superclass of wrappers that can modify the action before :meth:`step`. If you would like to apply a function to the action before passing it to the base environment, you can simply inherit from :class:`ActionWrapper` and overwrite the method :meth:`action` to implement that transformation. The transformation defined in that method must take values in the base environment’s action space. However, its domain might differ from the original action space. In that case, you need to specify the new action space of the wrapper by setting :attr:`action_space` in the :meth:`__init__` method of your wrapper. Among others, Gymnasium provides the action wrappers :class:`gymnasium.wrappers.ClipAction` and :class:`gymnasium.wrappers.RescaleAction` for clipping and rescaling actions. """ def __init__(self, env: Env[ObsType, ActType]): """Constructor for the action wrapper. Args: env: Environment to be wrapped. """ Wrapper.__init__(self, env) def step( self, action: WrapperActType ) -> tuple[ObsType, SupportsFloat, bool, bool, dict[str, Any]]: """Runs the :attr:`env` :meth:`env.step` using the modified ``action`` from :meth:`self.action`.""" return self.env.step(self.action(action))
[docs] def action(self, action: WrapperActType) -> ActType: """Returns a modified action before :meth:`step` is called. Args: action: The original :meth:`step` actions Returns: The modified actions """ raise NotImplementedError